OIE/FAO/WHO/IVPHC Background Discussion

13 July 2010

Humanitarian Resource Institute
Phone: (203) 668-0282
Url: www.humanitarian.net

Pathobiologics International:
Url: www.pathobiologics.org

HRI:UNArts - Millennium Medicine Project
Url: www.unarts.org/mmp

EID Surveillance Notes
H5N1/H1N1 Atypical Infections: Viral Encephalitis/Meningitis

Dear Colleagues:

During this last week, I have noted 2 cases (late teen, early 20's) of Viral Meningitis [1] in the same local vicinity in Southern CT (personal relatives/acquaintances).  As many of you know Connecticut/New York City is considered by some as ground zero or an epidemiological focus point for corporate international air travel related transmission of high consequence pathogens.

These cases brought to mind two focus areas (1) my Los Alamos discussions [2] regarding the use of microarray genomic analysis technologies [3,4] (100,000 gene on a chip) and (2) evolution of pandemic H1N1 as a variable in viral encephalitis/meningitis cases (atypical infections).  

As many of you know, in 2003 OIE/FAO/WHO  Pandemic Influenza: International Contingency Planning background discussions [5,6] were mediated by HRI: Pathobiologics International.  These discussions were associated with the geographic spread of Avian influenza A subtype H5NI via migratory birds (South Korea) and consensus that pathogen presented greatest global pandemic threat.  As H5N1 spread across the globe, CDC, NEJM noted that atypical infections (encephalitis, diarrheal, gastrointestinal illness) [7] were a serious concern associated with outbreaks worldwide.  Though H5N1 was classified as a pandemic, from a veterinary public health standpoint, low human mortality allowed it to be kept under the radar screen.  This gap is a focus in one of the current Millennium Medicine Project background discussions on Public Health Infrastructure and Emerging Infectious Diseases: [8]

The United Nations Arts Initiative is working with the global "One Health Initiative," Humanitarian Resource Institute and Pathobiologics International to close these gaps via collaboration between the human medical and veterinary professions in every United Nations member country.

Today's challenge of H5N1/H1N1 Atypical Infections (Viral Encephalitis/Meningitis) comes with pathogenic genomic attributes of H5NI in evolving strains of a WHO Level 6 pandemic H1N1.  While co-infections continue to be a clinical focus point, the use of microarry for spectrum analysis of pathogens associated with clinical illness, would be of value, especially in regard to bacterial infections (including drug resistant) that can be contained in an effort to improve immunocompetence.  

Looking forward to your feedback,

Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

Pathobiologics International
Internet: www.pathobiologics.org

Humanitarian Intervention Initiative
Operational Security Consultancy
Internet: www.H-II.org


1. Pediatrics, Meningitis and Encephalitis: Medscape/eMedicine. Url: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/802760-overview
2. The Future of Biodetection Technologies:  Los Alamos National Laboratory, September 26-27, 2006. Url: http://www.lanl.gov/bioscience/biodetection.shtml
3. Microarray Primer: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) . Url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/microarrays.html
4. Epidemic Outbreak Surveillance (EOS) - Slide 1: DOD: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Url: http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2004ussocom/Alexander.ppt
5. Biodefense Threat Analysis & Communications Center: Humanitarian Resource Institute, Pathobiologics International. Url: http://pathobiologics.org/btac/
6. Pandemic Influenza: International Contingency Planning: Humanitarian Resource Institute, Pathobiologics International, International Veterinary Public Health Consortium. Url: http://www.pathobiologics.org/ivphc/pi102004.html
7. Avian influenza, human (140): atypical infections:  ProMED, 5 September 2006. Url: http://www.pathobiologics.org/ivphc/ref/h5n1_200609052522.html
8. Public Health Infrastructure and Emerging Infectious Diseases: HRI:UNArts - Millennium Medicine Project, 6 July 2010. Url: http://www.unarts.org/mmp/eid_762010.html

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