9 January 2012

Stephen M. Apatow
Operational Security: Humanitarian Intervention Initiative
Founder, Director of Research and Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA), Humanitarian University Consortium
Graduate Studies Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@H-II.org
Internet: www.H-II.org

Pathobiologics International
Internet: www.pathobiologics.org

Subject:  HUMINT OPSEC - Molecular Diagnostics Discussion

Dear Colleagues and Associates:

In conjunction with HUMINT for Special Operations [1] and utilization of open source resources such as HealthMap (for disease outbreak monitoring and real-time surveillance of emerging public health threats), I am working to expand access to the latest molecular diagnostics technologies [2] for use in the field with special protective forces for humanitarian operations.

Recently, the challenge of pediatric neurological symptoms [3] associated with influenza infections [4] has prompted discussions about H5N1 and human transmissible strains of avian influenza virus that originated from H5N1(H3N2, H1N1 - H2, H9, H7).  [5,6,7]  With H5N1 global circulation as widespread as West Nile throughout North America, the use of multiplex or microarray technologies to identify constituent pathogenic characteristics from segments of the genomic map, moves beyond a primary strain into diagnostic dimension that changes the face of clinical human and veterinary medicine.  The starting point for this discussion was the conclusion of the 2006 ProMED discussion on atypical infections associated with H5N1:

[There is still a deficit of comprehensive seroprevalence data to establish the true frequency of subclinical infections and the relevance of these sporadic accounts of atypical infections listed above. For a discussion of this topic and an evaluation of some published seroprevalence studies, the reader is referred to the ProMED-mail posts archived as Avian influenza, human - Eurasia (41): multicountry 20060130.0290 and Avian influenza, human - East Asia (195): China 20051208.3538. - Mod.CP] -- PRO/AH> Avian influenza, human (140): atypical infections, 05-SEP-2006  20060905.2522

Today, in conjunction with conventional operational medicine, [8] the focus of special operations and comprehensive intelligence gathering capabilities leads us to the need for molecular diagnostic technologies, with accepted OIE/FAO/WHO validation, real time satellite communication links to the diagnostic lab lab, bioinformatics analysis and real time guidance for clinical applications in the field.  [9]

We welcome feedback and contributions from biotechnology companies and the research community.


1. Human Intelligence (HUMINT) for Special Operations:
Operational Security: Humanitarian Intervention Initiative.  Url: www.H-II.org/ref/humint
2. Bioinformatics: Pathological Diagnostics, Pathobiologics International. Url: www.humanitarian.net/biodefense/bioinformatics/
3. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus can enter the central nervous system and induce neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration:
4. Influenza: USA (OH) institutional children with neuro conditions: ProMED, 05 Jan 2012. Url: www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20120105.1001023
5. Africa - International Public Health Emergency: Pathobiologics International: November 2006. Url: www.pathobiologics.org/btac/UNIHR1292007.html
6. Influenza: Biodefense and Epidemiological Tracking. Url: www.humanitarian.net/biodefense/fazdc/influenza_biodefense.html
7. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): Biodefense and Epidemiological Tracking. Url: www.humanitarian.net/biodefense/sars_biodefense.html
8. Operational Medicine: Pathobiologics International. Url: www.pathobiologics.org/mmp/opmed/
9. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2007. Url: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK52862/


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