18 February 2013

American Relief Coalition for Syria (ARCS) was formed in early April, is a group of 18 U.S.-based relief and humanitarian organizations whose focus is to facilitate humanitarian assistance for Syria and respond to emergency situations. The Coalition includes the following members:
  • Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS)
  • Syrian Sunrise Foundation (SSF)
  • Syria Relief and Development (SRD)
  • NuDay Syria
  • The Maram Foundation
  • Swasia Charity Foundation
  • Zakat Foundation
  • Syrian Orphans
  • Hope for Syria
  • Mercy Without Limits
  • Life for Relief and Development
  • Karam Foundation
  • Shaam Relief Foundation
  • Syrian American Engineers Association (SAEA)
  • Syrian Center for Political and Strategic Studies (SCPSS), advisory member
  • Syrian Expatriates Organization (SEO), advisory member
  • Syrian American Council (SAC), advisory member
  • United Charity, advisory member

Special thanks to Dr. Zehra Gilic, Veterinary Expert Bosnia and Herzegovina.  Fellow representative for Vet 2011.

4 March 2012

Confusion Regarding Logistical Planning for Emergency Response

When the size and scope of a humanitarian crisis is beyond the operational capacities of relief organizations and UN Agencies, then resources equipped to handle large scale logistical challenges need to be engaged.

Two such emergencies that HRI:IDIN mediated assistance with were the Tsunami in Indonesia and Hurricane Katrina in the United States: See: the Pathobiologics International Operational Medicine (Emergency Medical/Veterinary Selfcare) site.

The key focus is the systemic collapse of critical infrastructure. 

With the Tsunami, we made sure within minutes of projected impact, demographic population maps with contrast wave destruction projections, and made sure they were infront of disaster planners in every UN country through IDIN. Governments then responded in real time, at the speed of an email.  See:
U.S. Forces Aid Tsunami Relief Efforts in Southeast Asia: U.S. Department of Defense.

The same efforts were done in the United States with Hurricane Katrina, when the size and scope of the disaster were beyond the capacity for State and federal disaster relief agencies capabilities.  Up until this crisis, there existed no strategic plan for DOD support of relief efforts, this challenge has now been addressed.  See:
Systemic Collapse: Medical Care in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, Volume 4, Number 2, 2006.  UPMC: Center for Biosecurity: Publications by year.

The United States has provided the International community with a reference point and example for NATO, that needs to coordinate a Global Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief & Mine Action Strategic PlanSee: Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief & Mine Action: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Center.

Who Is HRI? See:
Pathobiologics International - The Consulting Arm of Humanitarian Resource Institute and the Humanitarian University Consortium: National Academy of Sciences has recognized Humanitarian Resource Institute (HRI) as one of nine leading educational and research institutions.


3 March 2012 - Updated 25 August 2013

Contact: Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

HRI:UNArts: Humanitarian Intervention Initiative
Url: www.unarts.org/H-II

Url: www.H-II.org

Syria - Coordinating the Logistics of an Operational Medicine Response Plan

The size and scope of the humanitarian catastrophe in Syria [1] has prompted the call for a NATO level Operational Medicine Response Plan to address a crisis that is anticipated to be beyond  ICRC and NGO capabilities.  Syria has refused to cooperate with the call for
unimpeded humanitarian access by the UN Security Council on 1 March 2012, [2,3] while on 2 March 2012 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stated that the Syrian authorities have committed widespread crimes against the civilian population (BBC Video).  [4]

In conjunction with a Operational Medicine Response Plan, Demining Operations will also be critical, following reports that mines and booby-traps [5] limit access to impacted cities by relief organizations.  HRI has called for (1) a Humanitarian Corridor [6,7,8] for cities under siege, (2) withdrawal of all Syrian troops in target cities for humanitarian aid and (3) Special Protective Forces for Humanitarian Operations. [9]

Note: The HRI: International Disaster Information Network [10] was developed in cooperation with the FEMA Preparedness, Exercises & Training Directorate in 1999 for Year 2000 Global Infrastructure Analysis and Contingency Planning, building upon the foundation established by the U.S. State Department (for a Global Disaster Information Network: GDIN) in the early 90's.


  1. Syria: International Humanitarian & Security Discussions: Humanitarian Intervention Initiative.
  2. UN Human Rights Council deplores ‘brutal’ actions by Syria against civilians: UN News Centre. 1 March 2012.
  3. UN Security Council Press Statement on Syria: UN Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York, 1 March 2012.
  4. Syria: Ban Ki-moon on reports of summary executions: BBC Video.
  5. Syria blames 'booby traps' for Red Cross Baba Amr delay: BBC, 3 March 2012.
  6. Guiding Principles on the Right to Humanitarian Assistance:  International Institute on Humanitarian Law, Word Doc.
  7. The International Committee of the Red Cross - How Does It Protect Victims of Armed Conflict?: Pace International Law Review, 1.1.1997, PDF.
  8. Safety Zones: Crimes of War Education Project.
  9. Special Protective Forces for Humanitarian Operations: H-II OPSEC.
  10.  International Disaster Information Network: Humanitarian Resource Institute.


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